On the 2nd day of my Summer Training @DGPLUG, i learnt about FHS(File Hierarchy standard). FHS is the way in which Linux maintains its system files and folders which is completely different from that of windows.

Note that all files and folders appear under root ‚Äė/ ‚Äė :

  1. /bin                        :           This folder contains all command binaries used by all users such as cd, ls, mv, rm.
  2. /dev                       :           Linux loads the hardware devices in this folder and those hardware are visible as files here.
  3. /home                   :           This is the home directory for users containing saved files.
  4. lost+found           :           This is a system folder which keeps files which might have been deleted during some malfunctioned        process.
  5. /mnt                       :           Used to mount other filesystems temporarily.
  6. /proc                     :           This is a virtual file-system which gives information about runtime process.
  7. /sbin                      :            Important command binaries for system administrators are kept here. e.g., init, ip, mount.
  8. /srv ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬†: ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† It contains services’ specific data from the system.
  9. /tmp                       :           It contains temporary files stored by different applications here. These files are temporary and stored in between system reboots.
  10. /var                        :           Contains variable data files whose data keep changing explicitly during normal system runtime..
  11. /boot                     :           Everything required for boot process resides here including boot loader files and kernels. It also contains certain configuration files.
  12. /etc                         :           Contains all configurations files. No binary files or other files go there. They are static and change is not necessary unless you are changing some configurations.
  13. /lib                          :           Its a library containing all the binaries required in /bin/.
  14. /media                   :           Mounts all removable media.
  15. /opt                         :           To keep additional softwares.
  16. /root                       :           This is the home folder of the root user.

FOSS (Free & Open Source Software)

Free and open-source software (F/OSS, FOSS) or free/libre/open-source software (FLOSS) is software that is both free software and open source. It is liberally licensed to grant users the right to use, copy, study, change, and improve its design through the availability of its source code. This approach has gained both momentum and acceptance as the potential benefits have been increasingly recognized by both individuals and corporations.

Free software, software libre or libre software is software that can be used, studied, and modified without restriction, and which can be copied and redistributed in modified or unmodified form either without restriction, or with restrictions that only ensure that further recipients have the same rights under which it was obtained and that manufacturers of consumer products incorporating free software provide the software as source code. The word free in the term free software refers to freedom (liberty) and is not at all related to monetary cost.

FOSS (Free & Open Source Software)